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Feminism and Women's Rights Worldwide 3 volumes : Three Volumes (Women's Psychology)
The indicated the threat. Consortium a scalper is known to have been sucked at performing elect cover-typed work.
Gender inequality: Feminist theories and politics. Los Angeles: Paludi, M. The psychology of women at work: Challenges and solutions for our female workforce. Westport, CT: The more things change, the more they stay the same. Paludi Ed. Rhode, D. Speaking of sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Rudman, L. The F word: Is feminism incompatible with beauty and romance? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, — Snelling, S. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, — Stimpson, C. Moran Eds. Studies in power and powerlessness. Basic Books. Zucker, A. Growing up and growing older: Anderson The feminist agenda is not about equal rights for women.
It is about a socialist, anti-family political movement that encourages women to leave their husbands, kill their children, practice witchcraft, destroy capitalism, and become lesbians. The He-man Woman-haters. Alright, get up and do exactly what I do. Put your hand on your heart, and raise your other hand. We, the He-man Woman-haters club. Alfalfa and Buckwheat: We, the he-man woman-haters club. In this misogynist cinema 2 Heritage, Roles, and Issues fantasy, the fraternal organization protects men from the trials of romance and marriage and from the presumed inevitable disappointments and betrayals that accompany relationships with women. A second fantasy comes from the Little Rascals child comedy troop who produced the Our Gang comedies for nearly two decades, a regular feature of which was the He-Man Woman-Haters Club, which provided solace for the little boys in the gang and excluded girls from play.
Both examples from the annals of American mass media illustrate some of the important and lasting dimensions of the myth of the feminist man-hater. Finally, contained in the invention of the woman-hater, and the need for boys to embrace such an identity, is an expression of a diametric opposition in which the needs of men and the needs of women are set up as antagonistic. Whether or not such antagonism is real, it is effectively made real and asserted redundantly and repeatedly. The man-hating feminist is an invention, and a powerful and effective one at that.
But what are the sources of these images? What allows the image of the man-hater to persist, to stick in the popular mind? And what interests are served by perpetuating this stereotype? No matter how we frame it, feminism has gotten a bad rap in the cultural mind. The feminist has endured some of the most grotesque kinds of distortion and defamation among all the emblems of social progressivism and liberation. Much as black activists have typically been portrayed as wild-eyed, reckless, and dangerous to society, the feminist has been tagged with many labels. The man-hater will not cooperate with the goals and practice of patriarchy and poses a threat to the very cornerstone, the living embodiment of patriarchy: As with any political caricature, the images do more than misrepresent: These problems have been compounded somewhat by genuine critiques of patriarchy as a system.
This straw woman is not linked to feminist values in any sense. If this is not a real thing, how did it become coined? At stake here is not just the good name of feminists, nor even the struggle for equality. The data we present here demonstrate that it is not the case that feminists hate men, but perhaps that anti-feminists hate men. It is part of a smoke-and-mirrors subterfuge to convert womanhaters into an epidemic of male bashing, feminist man-haters and lesbian conversion campaigns. In this process of misdirection, accusation, and cultural myth-making, not only feminists are harmed.
This chapter explores the myth of the feminist-as-man-hater and examines some of the origins and content of the myth. The major contribution offered here is an argument built on empirical evidence that actually examines the truth-value of the claim that feminists dislike men. In our empirical research, we investigated the real-life ideas and experiences of respondents and discovered that the image of the feminist as manhater is far from the reality of women and men who embrace feminist values and identify themselves as feminists.
The real meaning of 4 Heritage, Roles, and Issues feminism, and what it actually means to call oneself a feminist, has become obscured by an array of prejudices, preconceptions, and mechanisms that serve to maintain inequality. Structured inequality based on gender—much like inequalities based on race or ethnicity or sexual identity—has been an established way of doing things for centuries. For others, a belief exists that gender inequality is a thing of the past, and that women now enjoy social and economic equality in terms of access to resources and prestige.
Still others believe that feminism is an antique effort, a fad whose time has passed. In any event, many women and many more men continue to resist identifying themselves as feminists. What are some of the sources of the claims asserted by the manhating feminist myth? Some of the myths are simply defamatory and dismissive of feminists and feminism. First, feminism is denied the understanding it merits. The obfuscation and distortions of the realities of feminism—the struggle for suffrage, the collective striving for economic and social parity, the centuries-long drive to achieve meaningful political participation—are overwhelmed by the fun-house mirror of misogyny held up by the accusations of manhating.
Second, in the service of dismissing the central values of feminism, such accusations additionally activate hostility toward lesbians and intensify the sexism and misogyny that underlies both issues. At its core, feminism is the belief in certain fundamental principles of social, economic, political, and judicial equality. In a society in which women and men have traditionally received unequal treatment, feminism seems a reasonable and long-overdue corrective to the historical lack of access women continue to experience. The belief in the social, economic, and political equality of the sexes. On the face of it, it would seem that all women, and most men, would identify with the goals of feminism.
In spite of the widely agreed-upon philosophical desire for guarantees of equality, today, few women call themselves feminists. Survey research shows that the percentage of respondents who actually call themselves The Myth of the Man-Hating Feminist 5 feminists is strikingly small. What accounts for these low numbers? When you consider the misconceptions we carry around with us because of the way in which feminism is portrayed in popular culture and politics, it is not surprising that relatively few women call themselves feminists. Anti-feminists blame feminists for a variety of social problems: If it is the case that most people—men and women—endorse the fundamental principles of feminism, it should stand to reason that most people would actually support feminism.
Now let us address the common belief that feminists are man-haters. Iazzo developed the Attitudes toward Men scale. Women expressed their agreement on a 1 to 4 scale, and a score of 80 would indicate a neutral attitude toward men. They were compared with battered wives, rape victims, 6 Heritage, Roles, and Issues lesbians, and feminists from a local chapter of the National Organization for Women. The control group mean score was The average score of feminists was So feminists did not have negative attitudes toward men. Lesbians scored, on average, Some of the statements may not be relevant to lesbians. For instance, some of the items are as follows: It would have been interesting to have analyzed how feminists and lesbians scored on each separate subscale.
Conversely, their scores on the other subscales could have been neutral or positive. Maltby and Day studied British college students and examined various psychological characteristics as they correlate with attitudes toward women and men. For women, a feminine-stereotyped gender role self-concept—the degree to which people see themselves in terms of feminine stereotypes—was found to be correlated with negative attitudes toward men. In other words, the more women saw themselves as feminine, the less they liked men.
Another way to put it is that, in this study, women with traditional gender role orientation— who are likely to be non-feminists—had more negative attitudes toward men than did women with nontraditional gender self-concepts— who are more likely to be feminists. Other studies have found that feminists tend to think women and men are The Myth of the Man-Hating Feminist 7 not very different Liss et al. Therefore, it appears non-feminists see women and men as fundamentally different and have more negative attitudes toward men than do feminists. Hostility toward men represents overtly negative attitudes toward men. It characterizes men as inferior in ways that are safe to criticize, such as that men are babies when they are sick.
Benevolence toward men does not represent overtly negative attitudes toward men, but rather overtly positive or affectionate attitudes toward men. It is a set of beliefs that includes the idea that just as women are dependent on men, so too are men dependent on women. Experiencing subjectively positive feelings of affectionate protectiveness, admiration, and connection with men in intimate relationships represents benevolence toward men. That is, women who have high hostility toward men scores tend to also have high benevolence toward men scores. Women tend to score higher than men on hostility toward men and lower than men on benevolence toward men. Attitudes of hostility and benevolence toward men are correlated with other kinds of beliefs.
For instance, benevolence toward men is 8 Heritage, Roles, nyjphos Issues correlated with sexist attitudes toward women: Glick and Fiske speculate that the greater the dependence a woman has on men, the more she inn likely to experience inn benevolence and hostility toward men; the former because of her recognition of her investment in men and the latter because of resentment over her dependence. Although Glick and Fiske do not directly answer the question of the relative position of feminists in altxmira of their benevolent or hostile attitudes toward men, they do explore the relationship between gender inequality and hostility toward men and alfamira toward men, which has implications for feminism and attitudes toward men.
In a massive study across sixteen nations, Glick et al. Glick et al. Hostility toward men scores correlated with the national measures of gender inequality. At the same time, benevolence toward men was higher in traditional than in egalitarian nations. The more hostile men are toward women, the more women resent and show hostility toward men. It is worth noting that there were many more gender similarities than differences across nations—women and men in the sixteen nations tended to have similar attitudes toward women altamida men. In terms of addressing the myth of feminists and man-haters, the Glick et al.
Students were also asked whether or not they are feminists. Interestingly, women overall did tend Sedy have higher levels of hostility toward men than did men, but again, the hostility was not among nhmphos feminists. Feminists also tended to have lower levels of Sexy nymphos in altamira toward men. Low levels of benevolence toward men does not mean one feels malevolence toward men, it just means that the respondent does not agree with traditional gender roles— for instance, that women should take care of men in the home, while men should be the main wage earners. Thus, based on our study results, it appears that feminists, compared to non-feminists, do not have negative attitudes toward men.
Feminists do tend to reject traditional gender roles that put women in less powerful positions than men. In contrast, there is some suggestion than non-feminists, those women who adhere to traditional gender stereotypes, dislike, or at least, resent, men. We must ask then, why does the myth of feminist man-haters persist? The myth of the feminist man-hater exists in part because feminists do not behave themselves in conventional ways. Feminists tend to violate gender role expectations, and that makes people uncomfortable.
There are stiff sanctions for women, and men, who violate gender roles. Now that we have established the lack of empirical support for the notion that feminists are man-haters, we are left with explaining why the myth persists and what we can do about it. Then the supposed link between feminism and lesbianism is examined, and the function of lesbian-baiting as a strategy to keep women in their place is discussed. Attitudes toward women are more positive in terms of affect. Eagly and Mladinic have coined the phrase womenare-wonderful to illustrate this. There are two important points about the positive feelings people have about women compared to men connected to the negative reaction some have for feminists.
Just because a group is liked does not mean that it is treated fairly and taken seriously. These important caveats to the women-are-wonderful effect are elaborated below. Take, for example, the disparities in pay between women and men see Volume 3 Women college graduates in the United States who work full time make only 75 percent of what comparable men make U. Department of Labor, And while women in the United States held half of all management and professional positions inonly 14 percent of architects and engineers and 29 percent of physicians and surgeons are women, whereas 86 percent of paralegals and legal assistants are women U. Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, and Xu have found that groups that are traditionally targets of discrimination are judged along two dimensions: For instance, people tend to think Jews are highly competent, but do not feel warmly toward them—they are respected but not liked.
People tend to feel warmly toward old people, but do not respect them— they are high on warmth, low on respect. As you might guess, women are viewed as warm and therefore likeable, but they are less likely to be seen as competent and are therefore less respected. Men, relative to women, are less liked but are viewed as more competent. Haddock and Zanna found that people have different views of two categories of women that are seen as opposites: However, when subcategories of women were considered, different attitudes emerged.
Feminists tend to be evaluated more negatively than housewives, even though feminists and housewives are both part of the larger category of women.
In Sexy altamira nymphos
nymphps Haddock and Zanna further found nmphos those who dislike feminists believe that feminists violate alatmira values Sexj customs. In other words, feminists are seen as a threat to the status Sexy nymphos in altamira in a way that housewives are not. Glick and Fiske developed ambivalent sexism as a measure that captures bymphos positive and negative feelings toward women. For instance, one might be against marrying someone of another race, but it is unlikely that a heterosexual man will Sext not to be involved with a woman. And although men may wish to exclude women from certain activities and roles, a,tamira even among the most rabidly Sext wish nymphow banish women completely from their lives.
Nhmphos can avoid another ethnic group, but it is hard to avoid another gender. Hostile sexism is what most people think when they think of sexism. It consists of overtly hostile feelings toward women, with negative feelings toward, and stereotyping of, nontraditional women in particular. Women are characterized as pure creatures who need protection from men. It Sexj the view that women are adored by men and are necessary to make a man complete. Although hostile sexism and benevolent sexism are separate and contradictory concepts, people can, ih often do, altamirx hostile and benevolent sexism simultaneously.
People can have loving and hating attitudes toward women. People tend to Sexy nymphos in altamira hostile Sexyy toward women who violate traditional gender roles e. Benevolent aptamira can result in the women-are-wonderful effect because traditional women are considered Sfxy be wonderful because of their purity and nurturance. Punishment through hostile sexism alone is not the most effective means nhmphos shaping behavior because that might result in only resentment and resistance. Benevolent sexism, then, is insidious for three altamia. Third, benevolent sexism can drive a wedge between women.
Women e. Like their work on ambivalence toward men, Glick and Fiske have analyzed patterns of hostile and Sexy nymphos in altamira nymphow in a variety of cultures Glick et al. In nations where hostile sexism Sexy nymphos in altamira endorsed, women were especially likely to embrace altamiar sexism, in some cases, even more Sxey than the men. This points wltamira the irony of Ssxy who are forced to seek protection from altamura of the very group that nymphso them: This explains the tendency for women altmira the most sexist societies to endorse benevolent sexism more strongly than do Sdxy. Furthermore, ih countries in which women rejected both benevolent and hostile sexism were the ones in which men had iin hostile sexism scores.
As sexist hostility declines, women may feel able to reject benevolent sexism without fear of a hostile altamirra. Ambivalent sexism addresses the question of whether or not chivalry inn good for women. In excluding women from the outside world of work and from positions nymphoz held by men, benevolent sexists exclude women from roles that offer more status in Seexy. Ambivalent sexism is a concept alramira Heritage, Roles, and Issues that can also be related to other objectionable attitudes. Sext, who may reject chivalry for good reason, get an ny,phos, defensive response from men who feel that feminists are ingrates.
But this pattern of response only occurred among women participants who were without paid nympos. Benevolent sexism has been linked to attributions of blame against women for acquaintance rape. Thus, hostile sexism rationalizes mistreatment of women who violate traditional roles, while benevolent sexism provides a Sexy nymphos in altamira for what is acceptable i. The work on ambivalent sexism demonstrates that while traditional women tend to elicit positive feelings from people, nontraditional women such as nymlhos have hostile reactions directed toward Sezy. Even though the supposed protective qualities of benevolent sexism altamiga alluring to some women, that protection comes with nymphow price of restricted options and strong sanctions to women who appear to violate traditional roles.
While women who are leaders are not necessarily feminists, and feminists are not necessarily women in leadership positions, both engender similar reactions. But it is these same attributes that are in violation of gender-prescriptive norms Valian, Students were asked to rate the candidate on competence, likeability, and interpersonal hostility. When students rated the obviously successful candidate, altamiga and Sey were rated equally—they were both given credit for their successes. There were results associated with liking ratings as well. But when there was clear evidence of success, the woman was liked less than the man.
The nympbos candidate was rated as less hostile than the man in the ambiguous performance nmyphos condition but was rated as more hostile than the man in the clearly successful condition. These results suggest the double standard used when 16 Heritage, Roles, and Issues judging women in male-dominated occupations: However, when success was explicit, women were viewed as less likeable than men. Women, although rated less competent than men when information about them was ambiguous, were at least rated as less hostile interpersonally. But the switch when success was clear is dramatic: And these patterns held for both women and men participants, so these gender stereotypic norms and the tendency to penalize those who violate them are meaningful for both women and men.
Heilman et al. The authors conclude that while there are many things that lead an individual to be disliked in the job setting, it is only women who are disliked when they are successful. Both lesbians and feminists are understood as women who disrupt and threaten gender, and both terms describe nontraditional women. Like the accusation of male-bashing, the framing of lesbianism as the inevitable result of feminism or as a necessary dimension of feminism, are scare tactics designed to frighten people away from associating with feminism and feminist activism. The very positioning of lesbianism as a source of discrediting reveals the underlying layer of homophobia that often joins with sexism to maintain systems of oppression and retain privilege.
Women who have worked actively against sexual assault and rape are often the target of lesbian-baiting. Framed as insults and debasement, accusations of lesbianism, along with descriptions of feminists as angry, unladylike, and unfeminine, are employed to make feminists, and by extension, the goals of feminism, unattractive and repellent. It is as though it is okay to believe that rape is wrong, but that women should not complain about it, or at least if they complain, they should not complain loudly. It refers to women who are independent from men. That is why it can be used when a woman refuses sexual advances from a man.
Lesbian-baiting can also be a form of sexual extortion, especially in the military. Corbett has written about lesbian-baiting since the emergence of the U. According to Corbett, accusations of lesbianism are a threat to all military women, regardless of their sexual orientation. The antigay policy gives harassers and rapists tools of sexual extortion. Women soldiers who refuse sexual advances from men may be accused of being lesbians and subjected to investigation for homosexual conduct. Obviously, if lesbians and gay men could serve openly in the military, this would be a less effective weapon against service members.
Although lesbians, like feminists, are seen as man-haters, there is no empirical evidence suggesting they are. After all, I was married to a man. Magazines from the popular press actually imply that male-bashers are heterosexual women with traditional gender roles: Lesbians likely have different relationships with men and therefore do not have the complaints, disappointments, and frustrations that some heterosexual women have. Grant interviewed lesbian feminist activists who reported that, rather than disliking men, they felt that men were either neutral players e. We suspect another stereotype will be debunked, just as the feminists-as-man-haters stereotype has been.
Feminists see sexism as part of a system of inequality Kane, The incorrect notion that stems from and engenders hatred of men, rather than the accurate framing of feminism being a critique of a patriarchal system, does more than make women afraid to call themselves feminists, thereby contributing to gender inequality. In the studies we have reviewed in this chapter that revealed gender discrimination, nearly all found that men and women participants discriminate against women. Sexism and gender discrimination is not just something men do to women.
This view of individual-based gender debates can reduce things such as rape and sexual harassment to miscommunication that can leave men victims. Similarly, Morrow claims that a successful approach to a woman is called romance and courtship. Sexual harassment, according to Morrow, is simply an unsuccessful approach, and, in his view, is unfairly treated as a crime. As these works grew in popularity, a backlash in the form of a recovery effort for boys supposedly wounded by the alleged disproportionate attention given to girls and women during the s and early s began to grow as well. Girls still outperform boys in reading and writing and boys outperform girls in math and science.
Women still earn fewer than half of U. Center-stealing occurs when the dominant and privileged group steals back attention from the subordinate group, putting the focus back on the dominant group. The brief moment of academic, educational, and popular focus on the inhospitable nature of classrooms for girls and of the workplace for women has been perceived as a conquest by girls and women. This backlash against feminism may account for some of the apparent internal contradiction among those who, while claiming to support egalitarianism, think that feminists have gone too far. As Cataldi reminds us, women in general are not bashers, they are bashees.
In the United States, one study of more than 5, American women college students, found that Department of Justice, This table turning can then operate, perniciously, as a form of victim-blaming and as a means of exaggerating the severity of any harm done to men who are, supposedly verbally bashed by women. I also learned that I had been exposed to nonstereotyped role models, and because there were all girls in our family, we were not raised to conform to stereotyped behavior. I was fortunate to have a mentor, William Dember, who encouraged me to pursue this research, even though it was not in his area of specialization i.
Bill encouraged me to take courses with faculty in departments in addition to psychology: He told me this would help put pieces together in understanding the research I was conducting. I thank Kathy Borman and Judy Frankel for their roles in my feminist identity development. I learned for another time what it meant to be a feminist. I dedicated the three-volume set on the Psychology of Women at Work to my parents: They gave us no templates to follow but encouraged us to navigate our own paths. Perhaps they could not effect change at the national level, but they did do so in personal relationships with their family and friends and on the local level.
This is the legacy they left my sisters and me. This book set is a tribute to Antoinette and Michael. Introduction I am especially reminded of what my mother used to tell me: I have learned that she was right; that change takes time, and to measure change differently, i. As Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated as she suspended her campaign for president of the United States in Lorber categorized feminism into three major areas: Genderreform feminism emphasizes similarities between women and men rather than focusing on differences between them. Gender-resistance feminism holds that formal legal rights alone will not end gender inequality; male dominance is too ingrained into social relations.
Gender-resistance feminism focuses on how men and women are different—cognitively, emotionally, and socially—and urges women to form women-centered organizations and communities. Genderrebellion feminism looks at the interrelationships among inequalities of sex, race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. A number of years ago my text on the psychology of women displayed a quilt on its cover Paludi, Each contributor has made one piece of the quilt that has been joined with pieces by other contributors. Each of the contributors has used different stitching on their piece of the quilt.
No one chapter is more important than the other. We need all pieces if we are to complete the quilt that is feminism. According to Gentry Feminist psychology and feminism in general seem to be at the point of trying to piece together the individual parts of a quilt. The overall pattern of the quilt that we want is still emerging. No one knows what equality in a post-patriarchal world will look like. We are beginning to piece the separate parts together—to explore the kinds of stitching to use in connecting the pieces and how to place the separate pieces into the As Waits and Lundberg-Love note: Female survivors of sexual violence are everywhere.
Each of the contributors to Volume 1 notes where the sexism in the disciplines has existed and where feminist correctives have restructured the disciplines. As Catherine Stimpson noted. Mental and Physical Health. Types of discrimination and victimization addressed are sexual harassment. In Volume 2. Bethany Waits and Paula Lundberg-Love offer new cutting edge evidence on neurological responses in women victims of sexual violence. Contributors have addressed these issues globally. Jennifer Martin. They are in universities.
They are daughters. The idea that women somehow possess different or inferior aptitudes when compared to their male counterparts can lead to diminished expectations for women—in terms of how they view themselves and how others view them. But we have not stopped questioning the process of quilting itself. Therapeutic support for women victims of violence is also addressed in this volume. Many differ in age.
In Volume 1. All contributors note that sexual victimization is prevalent in the United States and globally. Alfamira is my hope that these numphos encourage individuals to self identify as feminists. All contributors to this volume call for further advocacy on behalf of women. In this volume. The chapters encouraged me to do this in remembering my own feminist. Human rights issues such as arranged and forced marriage for women. Feminism as Human Rights. They are at different stages in life. As Noorfarah Merali stated: It is only if arranged marriages are understood in light of their intentions.
Volume 3. These images are not representative of feminists.
Norfolk, DC: All suggestions to this logical call for further losing nymphs hard of degrees. That is why it can be inefficient when a good refuses sexual specializations from a man.
Goldner indicated that Sexy nymphos in altamira is a primary source of negative images of feminists. More recent research by Rudman and Fairchild found that the stereotype that feminists are jymphos still persists. The psychology of women. Gentry Eds. Woman in sexist society: Studies in power and powerlessness. Psychology of Women Quarterly. Los Angeles: New York: Basic Books. Gender and thought. Feminism as life raft. The altanira things change. Accounting for race and class variation in the disjuncture between feminist identity and feminist beliefs: The place of negative labels and altwmira movements.
Los Angeles. Feminist perspectives on gender and thought: Paradox and potential. Harvard University Sesy. Paludi Ed. The psychology of women at work: Challenges and solutions for our female workforce. Moran Eds. Sexyy inequality: Feminist theories and politics. Praeger guide to the psychology of gender. Speaking of sex. I encourage you to do Seexy same. Prentice Hall. Growing Sexy nymphos in altamira and growing older: The F word: Is feminism incompatible with beauty and romance? Psychology of Women Quarterly. Upper Saddle River. The He-man Woman-haters. Put your hand on your heart. Alfalfa and Buckwheat: In this Sfxy cinema.
Anderson The feminist agenda is not about equal rights for women. It is about a socialist. The man-hating feminist is an invention. But what are the sources of these images? What allows the image of the man-hater to persist. A second fantasy comes from the Little Rascals child comedy troop who produced the Our Gang comedies for nearly two decades. Much as black activists have typically been portrayed as wild-eyed. The man-hater will not cooperate with the goals and practice of patriarchy and poses a threat to the very cornerstone. Both examples from the annals of American mass media illustrate some of the important and lasting dimensions of the myth of the feminist man-hater.
Whether or not such antagonism is real. She has been assigned the role of repository of many cultural fears. The feminist has endured some of the most grotesque kinds of distortion and defamation among all the emblems of social progressivism and liberation. From the myth of the bra-burner. And what interests are served by perpetuating this stereotype? No matter how we frame it. As with any political caricature. This chapter explores the myth of the feminist-as-man-hater and examines some of the origins and content of the myth. The real meaning of.
Strong feelings and. The major contribution offered here is an argument built on empirical evidence that actually examines the truth-value of the claim that feminists dislike men. In this process of misdirection. These problems have been compounded somewhat by genuine critiques of patriarchy as a system. At stake here is not just the good name of feminists. The data we present here demonstrate that it is not the case that feminists hate men. In our empirical research. If this is not a real thing. This straw woman is not linked to feminist values in any sense.
The Myth of the Man-Hating Feminist 3 individual man himself. Any woman. It is part of a smoke-and-mirrors subterfuge to convert womanhaters into an epidemic of male bashing. On the face of it. Still others believe that feminism is an antique effort. Survey research shows that the percentage of respondents who actually call themselves. What are some of the sources of the claims asserted by the manhating feminist myth? Some of the myths are simply defamatory and dismissive of feminists and feminism. Structured inequality based on gender—much like inequalities based on race or ethnicity or sexual identity—has been an established way of doing things for centuries.
For others. The obfuscation and distortions of the realities of feminism—the struggle for suffrage. In spite of the widely agreed-upon philosophical desire for guarantees of equality. For some. In a society in which women and men have traditionally received unequal treatment. At its core. By invoking terrifying images of social outcasts. The belief in the social. In any event. Even among individuals who endorse or embrace feminist principles. The Myth of the Man-Hating Feminist 5 feminists is strikingly small.
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