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Children ages 8 through 15 must be properly buckled in a seat belt.
Also, children under age 12 or under 65 inches tall must sit in the back seat zbout there is seeat active airbag in the front passenger seat. Georgia Updated inGeorgia law requires children under age 8 to ride in a federally approved car seat or booster seat that is appropriate for that child's height and weight. These children must ride in dafing back seat unless they are taller than datkng inches, and lawa car seat or booster seat should be installed and used according to manufacturer's instructions. Officers may stop a vehicle and issue a citation if they observe a seat belt or car seat offense.
Hawaii Hawaii law requires that all children under age four be restrained in a federally approved child safety seat. As ofchildren ages four through seven must ride in a booster seat or car seat any time un are in a vehicle. Indiana Indiana law requires children less than 8 years old to ride in a federally approved car seat or booster seat that is appropriate for abouy child's height and weight. The car seat or booster seat be installed and used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Infants under one-year-old and weighing less than 20 pounds must ride in a rear-facing car seat. Children ages 8 to 16 must ride in a seat belt. The state of Indiana strongly encourages parents to use best practices and to place children in the back seat whenever possible, though this is not required by law.
Similarly, it is legal for a pound Iowa Updated inIowa law states that children up to 6 years old must be properly restrained in a federally approved car seat or booster seat that is appropriate for the child and is installed and used according to manufacturer's instructions. Babies under one-year-old and weighing less than 20 pounds must ride in a rear-facing car seat. From age 6 up to 11, children must use a car seat or the seat belt and must continue using the seat belt until they are Officers may stop vehicles for suspected violations. Teenage passengers may receive their own citations for not wearing seatbelts. Louisiana Louisiana law requires babies under one year of age and under 20 pounds to ride in a rear-facing car seat.
Babies at least one year up to four years or 20 pounds up to at least 40 pounds must ride in a forward-facing car seat. Children ages four to six who weigh at least 40 pounds up to at least 60 pounds must ride in a belt-positioning booster car seat. Louisiana recommends that children who fall into more than one category by age and weight should be placed in the car seat that gives the most protection in a crash. Therefore, keep children rear-facing as long as possible, in a forward-facing harness to the limit of the car seat, and in a booster seat until the seatbelt fits. Maine Maine law requires babies and children weighing under 40 pounds to be properly secured in a federally approved car seat.
Children under age eight and under 80 pounds to ride in a car seat or booster seat. Children under age 18 must wear seat belts if they are not in a car seat or booster seat, and children under age 12 and weighing less than pounds must ride in a rear seat if possible. Massachusetts Massachusetts law requires that all children under age 8 and less than 57 inches tall be properly fastened and secured in a federally approved car seat or booster seat, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Forward-facing chair with a harness Type C: Forward-facing harness without a chair Type D: Rearward-facing chair with harness Type E: Type F: A restraint that consists of either: Child restraints can also be a combination of the above types.
The responsibility for children under the age of 16 using restraints or safety belts correctly rests with the driver. Exemptions to the law[ edit ] Laws regarding taxis vary by state for infants.
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For children up to seven, a child restraint must be used if available, otherwise the child must use a properly fastened and adjusted Feont belt. If a child has a medical condition or physical disability that makes it impractical to use a child restraint and the driver has a certificate from a doctor indicating this is the case. A aboyt must be either 14 years old or 4'11" to ride without a booster seat. A child must use a car seat at ages 0—4; Ages 5—7 a booster is required. Children under 10 years old are required to ride in the back seat. Canada[ edit ] Child restraint requirements vary from province to province. It is highly recommended that children younger than 14 years sit in the back seat or use a booster seat in the front seat.
Israel[ edit ] Israeli transportation law states that every passenger and driver in the vehicle must either have a seat belt or a safety seat. A child under the age of 3 must be set in an approved safety seat, and until the age of 8 the child needs to be in a booster or a safety seat.
Most Olympian countries tax children to sit back-facing until at least the age of 4 years. Optimal restraint updates the risk of pensionable illness in many involved in addition index options.
Up until one year a child must ride rear-facing. Children with the appropriate car seat are allowed to travel in the front seat if the airbag is disabled. Their guidelines dictate the minimum legal requirements for a New Zealand vehicle from the safety perspective. The correct fitting of a car seat can protect individuals and can be a lifesaver. This page provides details on qualified seat installation processes and approved standardized marks to look out for in child restraints. The Agency trains and certifies NZTA certified child restraint technicians who are authorized to install child safety seats. Children aged 7 years must use an approved child restraint if one is available.
Children aged 8 years and over are not required to use a child restraint but must travel in the back seat if one is not available. There are different marks to indicate this approval from the safety perspective. If you carpool or have other kids in your car, it's wise to have an extra booster seat handy, especially if you're unsure about whether a child meets the height requirements. It's always better to be safe than to let a child who isn't tall enough ride with just a seatbelt. Air Bags and Kids When combined with safety belts, air bags protect adults and teens from injury during a collision.
They have saved lives and prevented many serious injuries. But young children can be injured or even killed if they are riding in the front passenger seat when an air bag opens. Air bags were designed with adults in mind: They must open with great force up to miles per hour to protect an average-sized, pound kilogram male from injury. While this force is appropriate for adults and bigger kids, it can be dangerous for small kids, possibly resulting in head and neck injuries. Protect kids from air-bag injury by following these rules: Booster seats should be placed in the back seat. Know the Stages Make sure children are properly buckled up in a car seat, booster seat, or seat belt, whichever is appropriate for their weight, height, and age.
Use a rear-facing car seat from birth until ages 2—4. After outgrowing the rear-facing car seat, use a forward-facing car seat until at least age 5. When children outgrow their rear-facing seats, they should be buckled in a forward-facing car seat, in the back seat, until they reach the upper weight or height limit of their seat. After outgrowing the forward-facing car seat, use a booster seat and until seat belts fit properly. Once children outgrow their forward-facing seat, they should be buckled in a belt positioning booster seat until seat belts fit properly. Process We conducted a Medline search for human, English language literature from to on child passenger restraints.
Child passenger restraints as keyword only yielded four results. Studies from other countries that involved legislation were dropped due to issues of generalizability. Fifty-nine were deemed appropriate to answer the above questions, 55 of these were available for review. Fourteen articles examined legislation and 41 articles examined restraint effectiveness with relation to outcomes. Two class II and 10 class III articles demonstrated reduction of mortality with automotive restraint use in children as compared to unrestrained children. The risks of injury follow a continuum, with unrestrained children faring worse in a crash than improperly restrained children faring worse than restrained.
Unrestrained year olds had relative risks RR of 4. In children aged years, premature graduation of children to seat belts had a RR for injury of 2. The RR was 4. The RR of injury was higher for years olds 4. In children age 4 and above, restrained children fared better than unrestrained. Those with restraint devices were 2. Another study of children showed that age-appropriately restrained children had a significant reduction in severe injuries in every anatomic site except the back.
This study also showed a reduction in solid and hollow visceral injuries as well as mortality with age-appropriate restraints. Forward-facing restraint systems were found to reduce injury compared to seat belts in the year age range. Lap belts only are associated with increased spinal cord injury. Facial fractures are also increased in inappropriately restrained and front seat children, RR 1. Suboptimal restraint use has a RR of hollow viscus injury of 4. Improper use is cited in a class II article comparing restrained to unrestrained children, showing that restrained children were less injured than unrestrained.
Serious injuries in this study resulted from improper use, using seat belts at an inappropriate age or unavoidable circumstances such as intrusion or being struck by non-stationary objects. Backless booster seats were found to be no different than seatbelts in risk. Only one class III article showed an increase in head and cervical spine injuries with restraint devices in children 0 to 8 years of age compared to those from . Many have explained this predisposition by the anatomic differences in the developing pediatric C-spine. However, their evaluation was limited in that they could not determine if the restraints systems were used properly or were appropriate to the weight and age of these younger children.
There were not enough articles to develop a recommendation on this topic. Seven class III articles supported rear seat position for children 12 and under. Risk reductions applied to all but rear impact collisions. Restraints also reduced fatal injury risk in this study as well. This was the only study not to find increased mortality in children from airbags. Two class III articles suggested that second-generation airbags may result in less injury than first-generation airbags. Ages in the studies were not uniform and ranged from 0 to Recommendations Level 1 Standards Child restraint and restraint systems reduce injury and injury severity in all ages reported and are recommended for use.
The highest reductions come from age appropriate, properly used restraints, as per the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines on selection and use of car safety seats.
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