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This future was jeopardized one Friday afternoon when he went to LiveEscorts. He browsed through many of the advertisements and then decided on one that showed a photograph of herself that he found attractive. He also was not in any relationship with a girlfriend. He had no prior criminal history which is one reason he got the job with the Post Office and was unaware that police decoys often used such websites to make arrests of men seeking to exchange money for sex. It was now about 6: The motel is one our office sees used by the Los Angeles Police Department frequently for such sting operations.

There is plenty of parking in the parking lot of the two-story hotel.

As it is near U. She our client believed the prostitute was female instructed our client to meet her in a specific room. Our client pulled into the Vagabond Inn and sat in his car for several minutes. He was extremely nervous. Differential treatment of offenders at the hands of agents of the criminal justice system for non-relevant reasons is likely to damage the system's credibility Tyler, Consequences of illegitimate differential treatment may be disastrous to the end goals of the criminal justice system. The purpose of this research is to extend the work done by Wilson et al.

Second, data derived from the survey were analyzed and the results presented. Lastly, policy implications derived from the findings of this study are discussed. The subsequent pages will first review relevant literature concerning the topic at hand followed by a description of the methods implemented in this study and a discussion of the findings and conclusions. Literature Review Public Perceptions of Prostitution Historically, states have banned certain sex-related activities, notably prostitution, adultery, homosexuality, and sodomy.

It was not until that the Supreme Court decided laws against sodomy were unconstitutional [Lawrence vs. Texas, U. Notably, religion is an important factor when forming attitudes about prostitution.

People who are more Prostitution escort decoy, or belong to more traditional religious groups, tend to view prostitution less favorably Stylainou, Differences among gender also exist. Cotton et al. Men were also less likely to believe that prostitutes were victims of pimps. The study also showed that rape myths were correlated with prostitution myths. Just as people use rape myths to justify rape, prostitution myths are used to justify violence against prostitutes. Research has shown that prostitutes are routinely subjected to poverty, violence, harassment, discrimination, and hazardous environments Farley and Barkan, ; Farley and Kelly, ; Weitzer, This helps explain unfavorable attitudes toward prostitution by co-existing with it; however, some critics argue that these undesirable correlates are due to the nature of the sex market being illegal and not necessary because of the behavior.

Not all prostitutes work on street corners in rough neighborhoods. However, most prostitutes are regular people supplying their income as nurses or students with the sex trade. Street prostitutes resort to survival sex via prostitution to support their drug habits and pay for living expenses Weitzer, It is common for street prostitutes to report that they wish they could leave the industry Farley and Barkan, On the other hand, call-girls who work out of brothels, strip clubs, or massage parlors often report high levels of job satisfaction because of the autonomy, pay, feeling of empowerment, and relatively safe working environment with low risk of arrest Lucas, ; Weitzer, Law enforcement activities are almost exclusively focused on street prostitution.

There has been a recent push by law enforcement to target the supply side of prostitution by arresting those who seek out prostitutes.

Antes do not have the trader of being a news Protsitution economics as put to others. In each product, the man automated the last and saw a rate with the technical officer depending on what was opened. Covariates and Loans Forums about the respondent's gain and their trading as a law enforcement effort were disabled and used as covariates and provides.

Female officers play the part of decoy prostitutes to arrest Johns who attempt to purchase sex Dodge et esxort. Baker detailed how undercover female officers posing as prostitutes understand the harsh nature of being a prostitute. Although some Prostituyion felt that playing a prostitute was interesting, fun, and rewarding, many others felt otherwise. Some officers were subjected to harassment and dangerous situations where they Pfostitution alone and vulnerable. Additionally, many Prostitutio that the undercover work and prostitution in general was degrading. Deocy programs have gained wide popularity Prlstitution the U. Research shows that Johns who have been through the program were less likely to believe prostitution escoort Kennedy et al.

Police Perceptions of Vice Of particular interest to this research are the attitudes of esfort officers about vice. They ezcort the ones enforcing such laws and it makes sense that researchers should investigate their perceptions of vice offenses. However, only one study was found that directly measured police officers' attitudes toward vice crime in the American context Wilson et al. Wilson et al. The survey measured general attitudes toward vice crimes via a nine-item Likert Prostitution escort decoy and general punitiveness toward vice crimes eecoy a item intervention scale. The findings related to prostitution are discussed here.

The researchers found no support Prostitutino devoting more resources to control vice. The study also showed that variation in punitiveness exists between the types escotr victimless crimes. However, buying a prostitute scored lower than being a prostitute. Nearly three-quarters of officers said that pimps who perhaps are the crux of the Prostitytion drive underlying prostitution deserve imprisonment. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that age was the ewcort significant predictor of attitudes toward vice and appropriate interventions. In general, younger officers were less punitive. This may be because younger officers were more Prostitugion, perhaps coming Proetitution a more progressive generation.

It also may be that the longer a person is an officer, the more punitive his or her attitudes became because of the perceived negative consequences associated with vice. A few recent studies worth noting contribute to our understanding of how agents of the criminal justice system view esclrt. Franklin and Menaker found that probation officers have similar views about prostitution compared to the general public and that prostitutes are at least partially responsible for their victimization for choosing the life. Interactions with police officers are often the initial contact prostitutes have with the legal system.

Halter surveyed police officers and found that they view prostitutes as choosing to work in the underground sex market and are perceived as offenders rather than victims. Viewing prostitutes punitively as offenders may lead to the denial of services and support that ameliorate the latent sources of prostitution. What is more, the relationship between police and prostitutes varies widely across location. Some departments aggressively enforce all forms of prostitution, where other departments have a de facto decriminalized approach to call-girl prostitution.

As such, in places where prostitution is aggressively policed, the relationship between police and prostitutes can be tenuous. Some departments, however, have a Prostihution beneficial relationship with prostitutes. In such cases, the police may turn a blind eye to a prostitute's activities in exchange for information that may lead to the arrest of people suspected of more serious crimes such as pimps, gang members, and drug traffickers see generally; Weitzer, Methods The purpose of this paper is to extend and refine the initial study by Wilson et al.

The Prostitutioon paragraphs outline the research methods used in this study. Research Questions Q1 What factors influence officers' perceptions of prostitution offense seriousness? Q2 What factors influence their punitive attitudes toward prostitution offenses? Q3 Is there a relationship between their perceptions of prostitution offense seriousness and their punitive attitudes toward prostitution offenses? Q4 What factors moderate that relationship? Q5 How has being a police officer changed officers' views of prostitution? The Instrument A survey instrument that measures police officers' attitudes toward vice and factors regarding demographics and experience with law enforcement was used to collect data from participants.

This survey used the Wilson et al. The current survey borrowed some of the Wilson et al. Additionally, the current survey also added several novel items to obtain more nuanced information for factor analysis. The survey in its entirety along with a more complete discussion on the merging of the original source surveys and novel survey items created by the author can be found in Jorgensen Only the survey items regarding prostitution, demographics, and experience in law enforcement are presented in this paper. The survey items will be discussed below in the descriptive statistics section.

Sampling and Data The sampling frame came from a large metropolitan police department located in the South that serves a city 1. Surveys were administered via SurveyMonkey. All appropriate ethical guidelines and procedures for social science survey research were observed for this project. After reading the study's statement of purpose, informed consent was obtained from voluntary participants via the following language: Given the constraints of the research by the department, a probability sampling method was not possible. As such, the data come from a non-probability convenience sample. Invitations to participate in this survey research were sent via official city email from a Deputy Chief to all of the 3, sworn officers in the department.

The language in the email and the link to the SurveyMonkey website were provided by the author. To maximize responses, the total design method for survey research was implemented see Dillman, It was not possible to calculate an exact response rate because the number of officers who opened and read the invitation was not known. The proper denominator to use for calculating a response rate in this situation would be the number of officers who actually opened and read the email inviting them to participate in the survey and this number was not available. The invitation to participate in this survey was a mass email to officers from a Deputy Chief.

It could be the case that many, if not most, officers simply ignored the mass email like university professors ignore mass emails from the university president or provost. What is more, it is not uncommon for studies using police officer samples to have low response rates see Klockars et al. A few aspects of the sample police department are also worth noting. There was no indication that prostitution was uncharacteristically rampant within the city the sample department serves compared with other large metropolitan cities in the United States, although vice prostitution typically being included in the term is a common typology of offense to which police departments devote significant resources to address.

Additionally, the sample department from this study differs from the sample police department in Wilson et al. During the year of when the data were collected the city in which the sample department serves had a violent crime rate of violent crimes per K residents and a property crime rate of property crimes per K residents. Both of these rates were much higher than national averages. Lastly, the sample police department has a strong and mutually beneficial relationship with the local universities and often allows research to be conducted there. Missing Data Missing data were addressed via listwise deletion which is an appropriate technique commonly used in data analysis and is the default option for the statistical package used in this research.

Nearly 50 respondents who started the survey ended their participation within the first eight questions of survey. It is not recommended to impute missing data for observations from respondents who ended their participation in the survey shortly after it began Acock, Respondents who finished the survey rarely did not answer every question. These missing data points were also dealt with via listwise deletion and only accounted for a handful of cases. The final sample sizes in multivariate models ranged from to which is large enough for a meaningful analysis. Sample Weights As noted above, the data came from a non-probabilistic convenience sample. The sample of responders was different than the population of officers in several regards.

Whites were overrepresented while blacks and Hispanics were underrepresented. Additionally, there was disparate representation based on rank. The lowest ranking officers were underrepresented while lieutenants, sergeants, and senior corporals were overrepresented in the sample. Officers holding a bachelor's degree or higher were also overrepresented in the data. To make respondents more akin to the population of police officers and to limit bias as much as possible, the sample data were weighted via the inverse probability weight Lee and Forthofer, Measures Latent factor variables were constructed to measure novel constructs that were not directly measureable Carmines and Zeller, Factor scores were calculated for the latent factors variables.

The novel latent constructs included attitudes toward prostitution seriousness and punitiveness toward prostitution offenses. Table 2 below shows the survey items used to create the prostitution seriousness factor and Table 3 below shows the items used to create the prostitution punitiveness factor. The correlation coefficient for these two factor variables was 0. These latent variables were coded in such a way where increasing factor scores represent attitudes that view prostitution activities as more threatening and serious and attitudes that view prostitution offenses more punitively.

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistics indicated that the measures were acceptable 0. Covariates and Controls Aspects about the respondent's demographics and their career as a law enforcement officer were captured and used as covariates and controls. Analytical Strategy Descriptive statistics and OLS regression models were employed to analyze the data. To answer the first and second research questions, an OLS model of prostitution seriousness attitudes, followed by an OLS model of prostitution offense punitiveness was regressed on the covariates listed above. Next, an OLS model regressed prostitution offense punitiveness the dependent variable on prostitution seriousness attitudes the independent variable while holding other covariates constant.

Interaction effects were then investigated. Multiplicative interaction terms were created to test which significant factors, if any, moderated the relationship between prostitution seriousness attitudes and prostitution offense punitiveness. The last research question was assessed via summary statistics. The proper diagnostic protocols were implemented to assess the assumptions for OLS regression. Outlying data points were truncated to the third standard deviation. Histograms with normal density curves and skew tests were used to examine the distribution of continuous variables. Two-way scatterplots were estimated to assess homoscedasticity.

Additionally, correlation coefficients and variance inflation factor statistics were estimated to assess multicollinearity. Interaction terms were mean-centered. Results Demographics and Police Characteristics Descriptive and summary statistics regarding respondent demographics and experience as a law enforcement officer are presented in Table 1 below. Demographic measures included age, ethnicity, gender, marriage, children, education, political ideology, religion, and religious commitment. Demographics and police characteristics. Survey Item Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics for the individual survey items are discussed below. Table 2 displays the results of these items.

More than half of the officers believed that pimps caused most of the problems with prostitution and that prostitutes got off to a bad start in life. Eighty percent of the sample agreed that prostitutes are drug addicts. An overwhelming majority of officers agreed that prostitution is a serious problem in their city, prostitution leads to more serious crime, and prostitution will always exists regardless of law enforcement activities. Officers tended to view prostitution offenses fairly seriously and that law enforcement responses to such offenses are not effective. Descriptive statistics for prostitution-related items. Table 3 displays what police officers felt were appropriate sanctions for various vice offenses.

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More than two-thirds of officers believed that street prostitution deserves incarceration. Officers were a little less punitive toward call-girl prostitution. Nine percent of the sample believed that street prostitution should not be treated as a crime. Sixteen percent believed that call-girl prostitution should not be treated as a crime. Sixty-one percent of the sample felt that pimping deserves more than a year in prison. Sixteen percent of the sample believed that buying a call-girl prostitute should not be treated as a crime. Police officers in this sample tended to have fairly punitive attitudes toward prostitution offenses. Officer perceptions of appropriate sanctions for various prostitution offenses.

Multivariate Results Table 4 below presents the results of the OLS model of prostitution seriousness attitudes. Additionally, regression assumptions were met. OLS regression model of prostitution seriousness attitudes. Table 5 below displays the results of an OLS regression model of prostitution punitiveness attitudes. Being male was also related to a decrease in prostitution punitiveness by 0. OLS regression model of prostitution punitiveness attitudes.





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